One of the most important concepts to understand when building apps with Strata is middleware. This concept should be familiar to anyone who has previous experience developing applications with WSGI or Rack. This chapter explains what middleware is and what it typically looks like in Strata.

What is Middleware?

A middleware is essentially an app that calls another app. Now hold on, I know that sounds a bit complex. Just remember that an app is merely a function. So, another way of saying it is that a middleware is a function that calls another function.

When a request comes in, the middleware app is called first. A middleware typically exists to do one (or both) of the following:

Let's take a detailed look at some very simple middleware to get an idea of what this might look like in code. The simplest middleware that ships with Strata is strata.contentType. The source is copied below.

module.exports = function (app, defaultType) {
    defaultType = defaultType || "text/html";

    return function contentType(env, callback) {
        app(env, function (status, headers, body) {
            if (!headers["Content-Type"]) {
                headers["Content-Type"] = defaultType;

            callback(status, headers, body);

As you can see, this middleware is simply a function that takes an app and an optional default content type as arguments, and returns another app. The thing to note about the app that is returned is that it has a reference to the app that it was originally given when it was created.

Since the return value of this middleware (and all middleware) is an actual app (i.e. it complies with the application interface defined in the SPEC) we can call it just like we would call any other app. Now, take a closer look at the body of the app that is returned (i.e. the function named contentType). When it is called, it simply turns around and calls its downstream app!

The env argument in this case is passed right through to the downstream app untouched. But notice, instead of simply passing along the callback argument, the middleware inserts its own callback into the callback chain. When the response comes back from the downstream app, the only thing the middleware does is check to see if the Content-Type header is set. If not, it sets its value to the value it was configured with. Then it passes the response back upstream. This is a simple example of the kind of thing that middleware is very good at.

Upstream and Downstream

Since middleware can be inserted at any point in the callback chain, it is helpful to use a vocabulary that lets us quickly understand in what order they are arranged when describing the stack. As you saw above, the words upstream and downstream are commonly used for this purpose.

If you ever get confused about their meaning, just think about them in the way you would a stream of water. The environment is coming in fresh from the spring upstream. As it travels downstream, various pieces of middleware meddle with it and may change various properties, similar to the way a stream of water may pick up leaves and other pollutants as it cascades down rocks and through the trees.

Modifying the Environment

The strata.contentType middleware shown above modifies the response on its way upstream. Specifically, it sets a header in the response if it's not already set. However, middleware can also be used to set various properties in the environment for the sake of downstream apps.

The example app below demonstrates how to build a simple middleware that stores the value of a request parameter named "user" in a custom environment variable so that it may be used by the downstream app. The app is constructed using a strata.Builder, which provides an easy interface for constructing applications fronted by middleware.

var strata = require("strata");

// This function is the middleware. It keeps a reference to the downstream app.
function setUser(app) {
    return function (env, callback) {
        var req = strata.Request(env);

        // Get the value of the "user" request parameter and put it in the
        // myappUser environment variable. Names of environment variables should
        // be prefixed uniquely (see the SPEC).
        req.params(function (err, params) {
            if (err && strata.handleError(err, env, callback)) {

            env.myappUser = params.user || "Anonymous User";

            // Call the downstream app.
            app(env, callback);

strata.use(strata.contentType); // Sets the Content-Type header
strata.use(strata.contentLength); // Sets the Content-Length header
strata.use(setUser); // Sets the myappUser environment variable

strata.run(function (env, callback) {
    // In the downstream app we have access to any custom variables that were
    // set by middleware upstream.
    callback(200, {}, "Welcome, " + env.myappUser + "!");

As in previous chapters, you can save the above code to a file named app.js and run it with the node executable:

$ node app.js

Then view the app at http://localhost:1982/.

Tip: When running this app, try http://localhost:1982/?user=Michael or something similar.

More Examples

Strata ships with many middleware modules that allow you to do various things including log requests, serve static files efficiently, and gzip encode responses. You can browse through the lib directory to find more examples.